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On 7 December 2005, Peru and the United States signed a bilateral treaty called the Trade Promotion Agreement.

The signing triggered a wave of public demonstrations in 2005. Prominent among the organizers were small farm organizations asserting that they would likely be hit the hardest by the resulting elimination of tariffs and other trade protections. The Peruvian government claimed that it would offer subsidies to reduce the agreement’s impact on small farmers, just as the United States does for its own agricultural sector. When the government failed to live up to this promise, the peasants marched in protest, demanding that the subsidies be released. In the midst of these protests, Peru ratified the FTA in June 2006.

February 2008 saw a new round of protests dubbed the “Paralización Nacional Agrícola” (National Agrarian Shutdown), in which thousands of small farmers participated. The protests, organized by the Comando Nacional Unitario de Lucha de los Campesinos Peruanos, were repressed by the authorities, leaving a total of four dead.

As part of the legislative package required by the FTA prior to its entry into force on 1 January 2009, the Peruvian executive branch – making use of the legislative powers granted by Congress – passed Legislative Decree 1015 on May 20 reducing the percentage of peasant and indigenous community members required to vote in order to sell or give concessions on their land in mountain and jungle areas.

In reaction, indigenous people from the Peruvian Amazon held several weeks of protests in August 2008 calling for the revocation of over 30 FTA-related decrees affecting their land rights. They were successful in getting the Peruvian Congress to revoke Decrees 1015 and 1073.

Also in August 2008, the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) amended Decision 486 regarding intellectual property in order to allow Peru to implement the FTA with the US. The amendment, initially rejected by Bolivia, brought CAN to the brink of dissolution.

The US-Peru FTA took effect on 1 February 2009.

last update: May 2012

Peru exports endangered wood despite US trade pact -NGO
Peru needs to do more to halt exports of endangered cedar and mahogany from the Amazon rain forest as it opens its economy to free trade, a conservation group and exporters said on Tuesday.
US asparagus growers get help
California asparagus growers are eligible for a share of $15 million in federal funds to help offset losses suffered as imports from Mexico and Peru erode their market share due to FTAs.
In first year, Peru trade pact creating US winners
US corn exports to Peru in PTPA’s first year increased 167% in quantity and more than 100% in value, and the US market share of the Peruvian corn market jumped from 15% to 38%
A year after implementation of FTA, US and Peru left with broken promises, no new trade model
Environmental and labor conditions in Peru have deteriorated rapidly since the congressional passage of the FTA in late 2007 and implementation in early 2009.
Protest supports Peru’s Indigenous
Indigenous peoples, solidarity movement activists and environmentalists filled the sidewalks outside the Peruvian Consulate in New York June 10. It was New York’s turn to join the international solidarity movement that has sprung up since Peruvian President Alan Garcia ordered police to attack a demonstration of 5,000 Indigenous people in Peru’s Amazon region.
Indigenous struggle shakes up Peru
Indigenous uprisings in both Bolivia and Ecuador led to the removal of right-wing neoliberal governments and the installation of progressive presidents who then, together with the input of the people, created new constitutions. Will it happen in Peru?
Peru revokes Amazon mining laws
Peru’s Congress voted Thursday to revoke two laws enacted last year to open the Amazon to mining, oil and timber development, measures that enraged many indigenous groups and led to a bloody confrontation this month.
Peru Amazon protests a success
Indigenous people in Peru’s Amazon are celebrating after the government revoked two land laws out of the 11 new laws passed to implement the US-Peru FTA
Trade agreement kills Amazon indians
The recent clash between indigenous peoples and Peruvian national police sends a powerful message from the Amazon jungle straight to Washington: The enormous social, political, and environmental costs of the free-trade model are no longer acceptable.
Declaration: STOP the violence against Peruvian indigenous people! STOP NOW THE FTAs!
The Declaration was signed by more than 200 social movements, civil society organizations and networks members of OWINFS, S2B and Europe-Latin America Bi-regional network Enlazando Alternativas. Full list of signatures at: