On 7 December 2005, Peru and the United States signed a bilateral treaty called the Trade Promotion Agreement.

The signing triggered a wave of public demonstrations in 2005. Prominent among the organizers were small farm organizations asserting that they would likely be hit the hardest by the resulting elimination of tariffs and other trade protections. The Peruvian government claimed that it would offer subsidies to reduce the agreement’s impact on small farmers, just as the United States does for its own agricultural sector. When the government failed to live up to this promise, the peasants marched in protest, demanding that the subsidies be released. In the midst of these protests, Peru ratified the FTA in June 2006.

February 2008 saw a new round of protests dubbed the “Paralización Nacional Agrícola” (National Agrarian Shutdown), in which thousands of small farmers participated. The protests, organized by the Comando Nacional Unitario de Lucha de los Campesinos Peruanos, were repressed by the authorities, leaving a total of four dead.

As part of the legislative package required by the FTA prior to its entry into force on 1 January 2009, the Peruvian executive branch – making use of the legislative powers granted by Congress – passed Legislative Decree 1015 on May 20 reducing the percentage of peasant and indigenous community members required to vote in order to sell or give concessions on their land in mountain and jungle areas.

In reaction, indigenous people from the Peruvian Amazon held several weeks of protests in August 2008 calling for the revocation of over 30 FTA-related decrees affecting their land rights. They were successful in getting the Peruvian Congress to revoke Decrees 1015 and 1073.

Also in August 2008, the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) amended Decision 486 regarding intellectual property in order to allow Peru to implement the FTA with the US. The amendment, initially rejected by Bolivia, brought CAN to the brink of dissolution.

The US-Peru FTA took effect on 1 February 2009.

last update: May 2012


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  • 31-Jul-2015 teleSUR Peru: Trade agreements bolster exploitation
    Analysts say policies initiated under the Free Trade Agreement with the US have taken away labor rights for hundreds of thousands of working class Peruvian citizens.
  • 30-Jun-2015 LatAm Observer Effects of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement
    Advantages and disadvantages of free trade between USA and Peru.
  • 5-Jun-2015 TeleSUR US-Peru free trade deal failed to enforce environmental norms
    An Environmental Investigation Agency report undermines the Obama administration’s argument that free trade helps protect the environment.
  • 25-Mar-2015 Peru This Week FTA commitments to be strengthened between the US and Peru
    Peru hopes to upgrade access to the US market for farm products.
  • 2-Jul-2014 Inca Kola News The US / Peru Free Trade Agreement and generic medicines
    Peru’s National Association of Pharmaceutical Laboratories (Alafarpe) has filed a petition in the Peruvian courts to stop generic drugs from being sold based on the terms of US-Peru free trade agreement, according to Inca Kola News
  • 12-Jun-2013 Andina Perú y EE. UU. evaluaron avances en implementación de TLC bilateral
    Representantes de Perú y Estados Unidos se reunieron la semana pasada en la ciudad de Washington a fin de evaluar los avances en la implementación del Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLC) bilateral, así como las acciones que impulsen un mayor aprovechamiento de dicho acuerdo, informó hoy el Ministerio de Comercio Exterior y Turismo (Mincetur).
  • 19-Feb-2013 La Primera Perú-Estados Unidos: Aqui está el cuco
    Para la Cámara, hemos pasado de un comercio de US$ 7,291 millones en el año 2008 a otro de US$ 14,955 millones el 2012. Sin embargo, esta buena nueva no cuadra con la realidad y menos con los datos proporcionados por otros organismos.
  • 11-Apr-2012 Reuters Peru exports endangered wood despite US trade pact -NGO
    Peru needs to do more to halt exports of endangered cedar and mahogany from the Amazon rain forest as it opens its economy to free trade, a conservation group and exporters said on Tuesday.
  • 17-Jun-2011 Gestión Estados Unidos ve difícil renegociar TLC con Perú
    Embajadora norteamericana afirma que absolverá las preocupaciones que sobre el tratado tenga el electo presidente, en la visita que hará a Washington próximamente.
  • 24-May-2011 Prensa Latina Perú: Humala ratifica intención de revisar TLC con Estados Unidos
    El candidato presidencial peruano Ollanta Humala ratificó la intención de revisar el TLC con EEUU, mientras su rival, Keiko Fujimori, prometió respeto a la democracia.
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